NMN the NAD+ booster (Activate longevity genes) - Longevity and Supplements (Live healthy naturally)


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Sunday, July 3, 2022

NMN the NAD+ booster (Activate longevity genes)


 Who are NMN?

Nicotinamide mononucleotide, sometimes known as NMN, is a chemical that all living things have naturally.
It is a ribo-nucleotide, which is a fundamental component of the RNA nucleic acid, at the molecular level.
The molecule's structural components are a ribose, a nicotinamide group, and a phosphate group (Figure 1).
In order to raise the level of the vital molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in cells, NMN, which is the direct precursor of this molecule, is thought to be needed.

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+): What is it?

NAD+ is a crucial coenzyme needed for cellular activity and life.
Catalysts for biological reactions include enzymes.
Coenzymes are "assistant" molecules that enzymes require to work.

NAD+: What Does It Do?

Without NAD+, which is the most prevalent molecule in the body after water, a creature would perish.
Numerous proteins in the body, including the sirtuins that repair damaged DNA, utilize NAD+.
Additionally, mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell and the source of the chemical energy used by our body, depend on it. 

NAD+ Performs an Enzymatic Role in Mitochondria

The TCA Cycle (also known as the Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle) and the electron transport chain, which take place in our mitochondria and are responsible for producing cellular energy, are three metabolic pathways where NAD+ is particularly active.

As a ligand, NAD+ binds to enzymes and moves electrons from one molecule to another.
The atomic building block of cellular energy is an electron, and NAD+ works by a cellular mechanism akin to recharging a battery by moving electrons from one molecule to the next.
As electrons are used to create energy, a battery is drained.
Without a boost, those electrons can't go back to where they came from.
NAD+ acts as this booster in cells. Thus, NAD+ can alter the expression of genes, the activity of enzymes, and cell signaling. 

NAD+ Aids in Reducing DNA Damage

Environmental elements like radiation, pollution, and inaccurate DNA replication cause DNA damage in organisms as they age.
The major cause of aging, according to the current aging theory, is the buildup of DNA damage.
The "molecular machinery" to repair this damage is present in almost all cells.
NAD+ and energy molecules are consumed by this mechanism.
Consequently, extensive DNA damage can deplete vital biological resources.
NAD+ is required for the proper operation of the DNA repair protein PARP (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase).
NAD+ levels decline with age in older people.
Increased PARP is a result of the accumulation of DNA damage brought on by aging, which lowers the levels of NAD+.Any additional DNA damage in the mitochondria will make this depletion worse. 

How Does NAD+ Affect the Activity of Sirtuins, the Longevity Genes?

The recently identified sirtuins, commonly referred to as the "guardian of genes," are crucial for preserving cellular health.
A family of enzymes known as sirtuins has a role in cellular stress reactions and damage repair.
Additionally, they play a role in insulin secretion, the aging process, and age-related illnesses like diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders.
NAD+ is necessary for sirtuins to be activated.
We lose NAD+ as we age, and the ensuing drop in sirtuin activity is regarded to be a major factor in why our bodies develop diseases as we age but not when we are young, according to David Sinclair, a Harvard geneticist and expert on NAD. He thinks that naturally boosting NAD+ levels can halt or even stop some aging processes. 

Why Do We Need to Care About NAD+?

NAD+ has been on scientists' radar since it was discovered in the body in 1906 because of its abundance and vital role in the molecular pathways that keep our bodies functioning.
Raising the body's NAD+ levels has shown encouraging outcomes in studies on metabolics, age-related diseases, and even some anti-aging capabilities in animals.
diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, and general immune system declines are age-related disorders. 


NAD+ is the source of energy that sirtuins use to support genomic integrity and encourage DNA repair.
Sirtuins cannot be activated without NAD+, much like a car cannot run without fuel.
Results from animal research demonstrated that increasing the body's NAD+ content activates sirtuins and lengthens the lives of mice, worms, and yeast.
Even while anti-aging properties in animal tests showed promise, researchers are still looking into how these findings might apply to people

Other NAD+ functions

NAD+ also has additional functions, such as correcting metabolic disorders (studies have demonstrated that NAD+ boosters can reduce age- and diet-related weight gain in mice and enhance their ability for exercise).
, battling COVID19 (The cell depletes NAD+ during the defense against coronavirus, weakening our body, according to a recent unreviewed study.
Innate immunological protection against viruses requires NAD+.) etc ... 


Strategies for Increasing NAD+ Levels

It has been demonstrated that fasting or calorie reduction, often known as calorie restriction, raises NAD+ levels and sirtuin activity.
It has been demonstrated that calorie restriction in mice slows aging through increasing NAD+ and sirtuin activity.
Despite the fact that some foods contain NAD+, the levels are too low to have an impact on intracellular concentrations.
It has been demonstrated that taking specific supplements, such as NMN, raises NAD+ levels.

How Are NMN Supplements Distributed Throughout the Body and Absorbed?

A molecular transporter that is incorporated onto the cell surface appears to be how NMN is taken up by cells.
The NMN molecule may be more effectively taken into cells due to its smaller size than NAD+.
The barrier provided by the cell membrane prevents NAD+ from entering the body easily.
Ions, polar molecules, and big molecules cannot pass through the membrane's waterless region without the assistance of transporters.
Formerly believed to require modification before entering cells, new data reveals that NMN can enter cells directly through an NMN-specific transporter in the cellular membrane.

Furthermore, NMN injections raise NAD+ levels throughout the body, including the blood vessels, pancreas, testes, kidneys, adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle.
Within 15 minutes of giving mice NMN orally, NAD+ levels in the liver increased. 

NMN Safety and Side Effects

Animal testing of NMN has shown it to be safe, and human clinical studies have already begun due to the substance's encouraging results.
Even at high concentrations in mice and a human trial, this chemical was generally regarded as benign and non-toxic.
Mice receiving oral medication for a year do not experience any harmful effects.
The very first clinical trial in humans was completed and the evidence supports the idea that it is not toxic in single doses. 

Although one study of Japanese men published in November 2019 noted that subjects had increased levels of bilirubin in their blood following NMN administration, these levels remained within the normal range.  Future studies should focus on long-term safety and efficacy of usage. NMN is not associated with any other known side effects.

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